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Having to work in a sub-optimal capacity is a socio economic problem which is apparently veiled, but it is equally detrimental as having no work to do. This study intends to compare the demographic factors of Pakistan which determine the underemployment and two sub-components such as voluntary underemployment and non-voluntary underemployment which lacked focus in the past studies conducted in Pakistan. The present study filled this gap by measuring the different dimensions and the determinants of underemployment using the micro data from Labor Force Survey (2010-11). The estimates indicate that females, people living in rural areas and the province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) have a higher tendency to be voluntarily underemployed. Also, the heads of households are less likely to be underemployed. Employees are less likely to be voluntary underemployed. Out of underemployed persons, only a small percentage of people have involuntary reasons for working less than 35 hours otherwise a high percentage of employed people have voluntary reasons. This shows the presence of voluntary underemployment at a very large extent in Pakistan.

Warisha Kanwal, Hafiz Rizwan Ahmad, Hafiz Asim Hafeez, Ghulam Muhammad Qamri. (2020) Determinants of Voluntary and Involuntary Underemployment in Pakistan, Empirical Economic Review, Volume 3, Issue 1.
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